Tag Archives: books

“Haunting on multiple levels”

DANGEROUS GAMES BIG

 

Very kind comments from The Skiffy and Fanty Show about my story Honourable Mention in the anthology Dangerous Games.

“Tade Thompson’s “Honourable Mention,” which is haunting on multiple levels, is also a monster story. It’s also about the horrors of an entirely different form of consumption — the victims of exploitative labor systems, slavery as well as others. An emigrant to Britain, Tito plays the Nigerian game ayo, and Thompson adds to the historical game higher stakes, sleep deprivation, and what one man’s desperation will drive him to do to win. This was both the game I found most interesting and the story I found to be most thought-provoking.”

Dangerous Games is out now in all good and evil bookshops.

 

Advertisements

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Cover Reveal: MAKING WOLF

I can share the cover for my upcoming crime novel MAKING WOLF from Rosarium Publishing.

The gorgeous art is by Vincent Sammy.

wolf

Can’t say much about the book yet, but release date is tentatively September 1 2015.

 

3 Comments

Filed under Uncategorized

‘Dangerous Games’ cover reveal

Over at Solaris Books they’ve revealed the cover for the upcoming ‘Dangerous Games’ anthology, edited by Jon Oliver (who just won a British Fantasy Award a few weeks ago), and which contains my story ‘Honourable Mention’. Available Dec 2014.

 

DANGEROUS GAMES BIG

 

Leave a comment

Filed under creativity, diversity, writer, writing

Book Dump

cover

Leave a comment

Filed under comics, frankenstein, graphic_novel, hulk, shelly

Mental Illness Primer for Speculative Fiction Creators: Contents page

I wrote the primer from slides that I prepared for a talk. I know this is doing it backwards but someone requested a Table of Contents so:

Part 1: Why Should I Care?

Part 2: What is Mental Illness

Part 3: How to Assess Mental Illness

Part 4: Mini Case-Study: Buffy

Part 5: Electroconvulsive Therapy

Part 6: Suicide and the Sandman

Part 7: Hush and the Freakshow

 

 

Leave a comment

Filed under buffy, comics, creativity, diversity, film, mental_illness, movie, neuroscience, non_fiction, psychiatry, psychology, review, story, Uncategorized, whedon, writer, writing

Mental Illness Primer for Speculative Fiction Writers 6: Suicide and the Sandman

Key Learning Points So Far:

The portrayal of mental illness by writers/creators affects stigma. Stigma leads to negative treatment once individual is identified (‘marked’) as mentally unwell.

Mental illness is difficult to define but is socio-culturally determined. Cultural context is important when depicting a character as mentally ill. There should be no drug/alcohol intoxication or organic illness. Behaviour/experience also needs to be sustained in order to attribute it to mental illness.

The assessment of mental illness should draw information from as many sources as possible (self, others, mental health workers), and should consider a change from the baseline.

Examination of Buffy s6ep17 shows superficial attendance to reality of mental illness. 

Electro-convulsive Therapy (ECT) has a troubled history, but is both safe and effective.

Trigger Warning: Up to 1 in 4 people can be affected by mental illness so if any of the topics discussed here affect you contact your health professional (General Practitioner in the UK).

Scope: This is for creators of speculative fiction. The idea is to improve depiction of the mentally ill in narratives like film, books, music videos etc. It is just a primer, therefore it will not go into too much detail.

Spoiler Alert: Here there be spoilers. Deal with it. I will try not to reference anything currently showing in cinemas, but I make no promises.

Part 6: Suicide and the Sandman

sandman 1

Neil Gaiman and an army of artists wrote ‘Sandman’ for 75 issues between 1989 and 1996. It is one of the high points of the sequential arts medium and has won a string of awards. If you have not read it stop now, because I will talk about the end. Seriously, do not proceed beyond this point.

The series ends in what is essentially the suicide of the eponymous Sandman (aka Morpheus aka Dream, of the Endless). There are many wonderful things about the series but the suicide of Morpheus was elegantly nuanced.

Family History

sandman2

 

Morpheus is one of the endless (pictured above): Dream, Destruction, Desire, Delirium (formerly Delight), Despair, Death and Destiny. They are godlike beings who represent some fundamental aspect of sentient life as their names suggest. We are never told who their parents are, but there is a birth order.

If you remember the previous parts we mentioned that in assessment of mental illness one has to check the family history. Is there evidence of mental illness in the Endless? Well, yes. We’ll leave out the absent parents (which we know can screw up any child) and go straight to the siblings.

  1. Destruction walked away from both his duties and the family.
  2. Despair constantly self-harms by cutting herself.
  3. Delirium is psychotic, and her change from Delight shows a definite onset of psychosis.
  4. Desire is not necessarily mentally ill, but S/he is homicidal and vindictive. The vindictiveness is a trait shared by Morpheus.

This shows a definite problem in the family.

What about Morpheus himself?

sandman3

The Sandman is rigid and inflexible. He is narcissistic and vindictive, prone to excessive vengeance.

He is prone to depression as is demonstrated many times throughout the series. He bears the guilt of killing his own son (long story) and imprisoning a woman who spurned him for over a thousand years in Hell.

Morpheus dies in the end. In my opinion he committed suicide.

“The only reason you’ve got yourself into this mess is because this is where you wanted to be”

-Death

The circumstances that lead to Sandman’s death were engineered in part by Desire, but we are clearly informed that Morpheus could have avoided it, but chose not to.

In my opinion his suicide was made realistic by the absent parents, the family history and his personal experience of depression combined with an inflexible personality.

Some points about suicide

Suicide is extremely tragic and has been depicted in dramatic form and fiction since man could form sentences. It appears to have been with us throughout recorded history. I’ve heard it said that one suicide can affect up to sixty people.

Because suicide is rather dramatic and eye-catching we often lose sight of one thing: it is uncommon. In most countries it is in the order of 11-16 per 100,000 per year. It is never casually done.

There are three components to suicide: 1. The person is dead. 2. The person died by their own hand. 3. They intended to die by their own hand.

These three components (but 3 in particular) make suicide difficult to prove, and for historical reasons it is defined differently in different countries (For example, England and Wales have a different way of determining suicide when compared with Scotland). This makes research difficult and comparison of statistics tricky.

Most but not all victims suffer from a mental illness at the time of suicide. Mood disorders increase risk. 60-70% have depression, people with schizophrenia are at risk, especially around the time of diagnosis and during recovery; substance abuse is a risk factor; anxiety and panic disorders can be risk factors. Note that people who have experienced non-lethal self-harm or suicide attempts are at increased risk of completed suicide (and can we just put that whole ‘cry for help’ malarkey to rest please?).  Even though two thirds of those who kill themselves have never tried to harm themselves about one tenth of those who harm themselves may go on to kill themselves. A chronic medical condition can be a risk factor, especially if associated with chronic pain.

Twin studies demonstrate that there is a genetic component to suicide, but it isn’t Mendelian.  The captain of the HMS Beagle (yes, the one with Darwin) was a man called Robert FitzRoy. He was noted to be odd and almost certainly suffered from Bipolar disorder. FitzRoy killed himself by slitting his own throat in 1865. FitzRoy’s uncle had killed himself by similar means about a decade earlier. According to Bryson, 2003, “FitzRoy came from a family well known for a depressive instinct.”

To Nuance Suicide in Fiction Consider:

  • Past history of suicide attempts
  • A history of impulsive behaviour
  • A family history of depression or suicide attempts
  • Living alone
  • Being widowed/divorced
  • Sometimes seen in white elderly males more commonly
  • There should be access to the means
  • There may be a childhood adverse experience
  • There may be previous suicidal ideation
  • There may have been planning
  • Substance misuse is very common
  • Recent loss is common
  • A personal history of depression/panic disorder

Remember: Be sensitive. Suicide should not be a punchline or plot device. Remember that what you write affects real people with real lives.

Next: Mini Case Study: ‘Hush’

 

1 Comment

Filed under comics, creativity, film, graphic_novel, mental_illness, neil_gaiman, non_fiction, psychiatry, psychology, review, story, writer, writing

Mental Illness Primer for Speculative Fiction Writers 5: Electro-convulsive Therapy

Key Learning Points So Far:

The portrayal of mental illness by writers/creators affects stigma. Stigma leads to negative treatment once individual is identified (‘marked’) as mentally unwell.

Mental illness is difficult to define but is socio-culturally determined. Cultural context is important when depicting a character as mentally ill. There should be no drug/alcohol intoxication or organic illness. Behaviour/experience also needs to be sustained in order to attribute it to mental illness.

The assessment of mental illness should draw information from as many sources as possible (self, others, mental health workers), and should consider a change from the baseline.

Examination of Buffy s6ep17 shows superficial attendance to reality of mental illness. 

Trigger Warning: Up to 1 in 4 people can be affected by mental illness so if any of the topics discussed here affect you contact your health professional (General Practitioner in the UK).

Scope: This is for creators of speculative fiction. The idea is to improve depiction of the mentally ill in narratives like film, books, music videos etc. It is just a primer, therefore it will not go into too much detail.

Spoiler Alert: Here there be spoilers. Deal with it. I will try not to reference anything currently showing in cinemas, but I make no promises.

Part 4: Electro-convulsive Therapy

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest

One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest

I’m going to go ahead and say this from the start: Electro-convulsive Therapy (ECT) is both safe and effective. ECT is a controversial topic, but not a controversial treatment. The problems with public acceptance of modern ECT are understandable, but historical and subjective. As a writer/filmmaker, you need to know how ECT was performed in the historical era you are writing in.

The essential feature of ECT is the induction of seizures by way of electric current.   Electricity gets a bad rap in psychiatry, yet it is used all the time in medical treatment e.g. Defibrillators, TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation) machines, diathermy in surgery to name a few. Nobody gets upset about all this, so it is not electricity that is the problem.

History 

Convulsive treatment started in the late 1930s out of an erroneous belief that people with epilepsy did not suffer from schizophrenia. The scientists of the day decided that induced seizures might cure schizophrenia. They used electricity, but also chemicals like cardiazol. With time electricity became the only method of inducing seizures.

We do, however, need to place the use of ECT in historical context. There have been, unfortunately, many abuses of psychiatry. Some of these have been nefarious, others well-meaning though paternalistic, but all led to some degree of suffering. This is not a talk on history, but a few key points should be noted. Psychiatrists in Nazi Germany subscribed to Lebensunwertes leben (‘lives unworthy of life’) and allowed or encouraged thousands of patients to be killed in ‘Action T4’ which is  believed to have been a dress-rehearsal for the extermination of Jews and Roma. The Soviets also gave us something called ‘Sluggish Schizophrenia’ which was a euphemism for dissident behaviour and the use of psychiatry for social control.

Asylums were seen by some as places to keep the mentally ill apart and (with hints of eugenics) to stop them from breeding. Interesting side note: being gay was considered a mental illness at this time.  The plight of patients on the Greek Island of Leros discovered in 1989 should remind us that such abuses are still possible in modern times. All kinds of purported ‘treatments’ emerged including insulin coma therapy, water dousing, centrifuging, mechanical restraints, psychosurgery, shock treatment, etc. By the end of WWII only ECT, psycho-surgery and Insulin Coma therapy survived as effective physical treatments for serious mental illness.

In the 1950s psychotropic drugs were discovered (by mistake while we were trying to make antihistamines). The simultaneous massive social change at the time along with the work of Goffman, Laing and Foucault as well as a financial incentive for governments led to the progressive closure of asylums. I am aware that I have simplified and collapsed a number of events and interpretations, but you can look these up. They are a matter of public record.

What’s important with respect to ECT is that it still drags around the historical and socio-cultural baggage of the asylums, inhuman treatment, coercion, paternalism, experimentation, eugenics and the immense human suffering that preceded modern mental health treatment.

When is ECT given today?

 ·        Severe depression ·        Catatonia·        Prolonged or severe mania·        Especially if there is refusal of food or drink 

What Does Modern ECT Involve?

In simple terms the psychiatrist explains the procedure and reasons for choosing that treatment option. They should seek consent in writing. The individual should undergo a physical assessment to ensure that there are no physical ailments that might make ECT risky. There should be a baseline memory test. Ideally, there should be a chat with an anaesthetist. After double-checking the consent, anaesthesia and muscle relaxation is induced. The pulse of electricity is applied with electrodes and seizure activity is monitored. The patient then goes on to recovery.

So, in summary:   Consent, anaesthesia, muscle relaxation, seizure, recovery.

It is usually about as dangerous as a dental procedure. You can read more about it from the Royal College of Psychiatry page

The events in the Jack Nicholson film may have happened once, but not any longer. ‘One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest’ was already dated at the time of its release in 1975. It was based on a book published in 1962 (during the wave of asylum closures mentioned above).

Smallville s3e9 ‘Asylum’: Lex Luthor gets ECT

Lex Luthor gets science fictional ECT

Lex Luthor gets science fictional ECT

 ECT is a plot device in this TV programme about the early years of Superman. Short term memory loss is a side-effect of ECT. Lex Luthor’s father wishes for his son to forget something so he engineers a dose of ECT to perform a memory wipe. It would have been more useful to get Clark Kent to kiss Luthor. This episode is an incredibly negative portrayal of the mentally ill and displays ignorance of how ECT works. It describes ECT as “draconian” and risking irreparable brain damage and successful in 50%. ECT cannot be used to wipe memories. The patient will not remember the treatment or scream. ECT in the episode is done without anaesthesia.

Similarly in Batman # 471 where Killer Croc is given ECT, there are visible sparks, there is no anaesthesia, and the doctors wear surgical masks.

This is the second time Killer Croc appears in this talk. Co-incidence?

This is the second time Killer Croc appears in this talk. Co-incidence?

Some criticism has been levelled at ‘Homeland’ Season one’s portrayal of ECT because the recipient winces when the treatment is applied. I’ve seen what looks like a wince in some patients, although it could be seizure-related.

Please read this 2012 Guardian article from someone who has experienced ECT.

Summary: ECT is both effective and safe. Try to avoid mass media as source material.

Next: Suicide and the Sandman 

1 Comment

Filed under comics, creativity, film, graphic_novel, mental_illness, movie, neuroscience, non_fiction, psychiatry, psychology, review, story, writer, writing